There are various minerals which are being used for oil drilling process and exploration process for different purposes. They are Mica, Bentonite, Barite, Calcium Carbonate (Based on Calcite, Marble powder, Lime stone and Dolomite), Abrasive Garnet and Silica Sand/Silica Flour (Quartz Silica).
Bentonite clay is used in vertical drilling fluids to increase viscosity and filtration control. This mineral is also ideal in drilling fluids because it expands when exposed to water. This expansion helps down hole formations to be sealed from invading drilling fluids. The Drilling bentonite extracts the drill cuttings from around the drill bit, which are then floated to the surface. Bentonite also serves to cool and lubricate the drill bit as well as seals the drill hole against seepage and to prevent wall cave-ins. It is mainly use in fresh pure water rotary drilling conditions as water quality will affect bentonite performance. The quantity of bentonite used is variable depending upon the depth of the hole to be drilled. Generally one tonne of bentonite is used to prepare about 100 barrels of mud.
Mica is another mineral, along with bentonite, that is most commonly used in drilling fluids. Mica (Fine, Medium & Coarse) is used as a mud additive in drilling fluids to prevent loss of circulation and as a sealant. Mica is a good sealant because the sheet particles overlap each other sticking to the side of hole and creating a sealed wall. This helps to keep circulation in the hole. Mica is chemically inert and is unaffected by hydrocarbons, acid and brines and does not re-act with other drilling fluids compounds
Barite is used as a weighing agent in oil well-drilling fluids to counteract certain pressures that result from well drilling and operations. In this process, Barite is crushed and mixed with water and other materials. It is then pumped into the drill hole. The weight of this mixture counteracts the force of the oil and gas when it is released from the ground. This allows the oil and gas rig operators to prevent the explosive release of the oil and gas from the ground.
We produces a range of marble-based, calcite, lime stone and dolomite ground calcium carbonate which can be used as bridging and weighting agents. The high acid solubility of these calcium carbonates makes them readily removable. The controlled particle size specifications of calcium carbonates makes them ideally suited for use as bridging materials and for the control of fluid loss in drill-in, completion and work over fluids.
Quartz (Silica Flour/Silica Sand)
In Oil well drilling industry, it is known as Silica flour/Silica sand. It is used for cementing purpose to inhibit strength retrogression at elevated temperatures. It can also contribute as a cement extender by increasing low shear viscosity and preventing cement sedimentation. The addition of silica flour can adjust the phase transformations and inhibit this strength reduction and the associated increase in permeability that occurs in set Portland cement.
Garnet is a mineral abrasive produced from naturally occurring almandite garnet. It is produced by processing beach sand and grading to exact specifications. Due to its low free silica, Garnet abrasive is widely used in Grit blasting and now widely popular for waterjet cutting. Garnet is a cost effective, environmentally and operator friendly, alternative to silica sands and minerals slags and will provide a class Sa3 White Metal finish. Garnet particles are dense, hard and sharp and free of heavy metals or toxic components. The low friability of garnet permits recycling up to 5-8 times and the relatively high density ensures fast blasting speeds. The heavy, sub angular shaped grains with a hardness of 7 mohs, provide high impact and cutting action with low amounts of dust emitted and reduces clean up.